Symposium Classes

A Bridge over Troubled Waters (Cystitis Relief)

Herbs have a long history of use to support bladder health in a variety of ways, but holistic phytotherapy also includes essential oils as strongly antibacterial agents to support specific herbal blends and overcome debilitating bladder infections, whether acute or chronic. The safe use of external and internal essential oils plus relevant materia medica of botanicals will round out an effective protocol for treating and preventing UTIs.

Track Level: Advanced

A New Perspective on Working With Lyme

In this workshop, we’ll look at Lyme from a different perspective – a relationship, instead of a threat. We’ll discuss how Lyme manifests in wild vs. domesticated animals, and use that information to inform our thinking about how Lyme affects various human demographics. We’ll use case studies to illustrate that Lyme can be successfully managed in relationship, including specific foundational protocols and suggestions for adapting them according to constitution.

Track Level: Intermediate

Speaker: Katja Swift
Botanical Influences on Diabetes Complications and Sequelae

Dr. Jillian Stansbury will present two related sessions on the Botanical influences on Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes.

This second presentation will build upon the first. In this session we will delve into the pathophysiology of heart damage, glomerular nephropathy, retinopthy, chronic infections, and peripheral neuropathy that are among the post common consequences of poor metabolic and glycemic control, and Type II diabetes. We will explore botanical materia medica options that specifically address each of these issues. This session will conclude with putting the research explored in each of the session into a clinical context with the presentation of sample protocols and herbal formulas to treat diabetes, and its various presentations and complications.

Track Level: General

Botanical Influences on Metabolism and Diabetes

Dr. Jillian Stansbury will present two related sessions on the Botanical influences on Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes.

This first session will offer an in depth review of the pathophysiology and etiology of this conditions, and explore the worldwide incidence. We will look at pathological mechanisms that contribute to impaired glycemic control, insulin release and response, and nutritional and botanical agents that can help remedy poor lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

This session will review both type I and type II Diabetes and nutritional, hormonal, and environmental contributors to the growing epidemic.

GOALS & OBJECTIVES
• Participants will learn herbs that may increase insulin production for Type I diabetics
• Participants will learn herbs that improve insulin resistance for Type II Diabetics,
• Participants will review various mechanisms where by botanical agents can impact diabetes including agents improve signal transduction, agents that improve cellular utilization of carbohydrates, and agents that have had modern research and clinical trials.

Track Level: General

Cannabis Demystified: Why It Should Be a Mainstream Herbal Medicine

In this session, we will explore the versatility of cannabis as a medicine and its various preparations (flower, resin, root) as well as its numerous therapeutic components, including the cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their corresponding carboxylic acids in raw cannabis, cannabigerol (CBG), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabis terpenoids including limonene, pinene, myrcene, caryophyllene et al, cannabis flavonoids such as cannflavin, and even alkaloids. The history, science and synergy underlying their therapeutic interactions and applications make this a powerful agent for the herbalist who embraces the philosophy that the whole may be greater than the sum of its parts.

Track Level: Intermediate

Speaker: Ethan Russo, MD
Chronic disease patterns: scar tissue, gastritis, & autoimmune issues

Over-production of scar tissue (keloids), gastritis, and autoimmune disease all share the lack of a certain glycoprotein. What foods, herbs and supplements are needed to nourish this genetic, and sometimes self-induced deficiency? Visual assessments shared.

Track Level: Intermediate

Clinical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (A-Fib)

Brian presents slides featuring plants photographed in medicinal plant gardens and wildland areas throughout the world. This presentation is most appropriate for seasoned practitioners, focusing on a refractory heart condition. Atrial Fibrillation is not well controlled via conservative allopathic medical treatment, and invasive ablation is frequently resorted to as second line treatment. We’ll discuss the botany, pharmacognosy, and energetics of herbs utilized in treating this condition, and individualizing formulations.

Track Level: Advanced

Clinical Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disorders

Brian will present slides featuring plants photographed in medicinal plant gardens and wildland areas throughout the world. This presentation is most appropriate for seasoned practitioners, focusing on refractory conditions of the Kidney: Glomerulonephritis (kidney / renal failure), and more broadly, Nephrotic Syndrome. We’ll discuss the botany, pharmacognosy, and Western and TCM energetics of herbs utilized in treating these conditions, and standard formulas and variations for individualizing formulations to specific conditions.

Track Level: Advanced

Complementing empirical knowing with haptic, intuitive and relationship-based knowing: constructing knowledge of the practice

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

This presentation reports the findings of a qualitative research study of herbal practitioners. Thirty-nine interviews revealed that expert herbal practitioners use multiple ways of knowing herbal medicines to inform practice decisions. In addition to rational, scientific knowing, herbal practitioners engage in intuitive, haptic, and relationship-based knowing. Multiple ways of knowing complement scientific knowing and are essential for traditional knowledge. Ways of knowing will be discussed in relationship to the implications for herbal medicine practitioners.

Track Level: Intermediate

Cystic Fibrosis; using herbs, essential oils, and supplements to help manage disease

Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestines. People with Cystic Fibrosis have a poor quality of life due to the limitations that their disease imposes on them. In this lecture we will talk about the etiology of the disease, and how to manage symptoms using herbs, essential oils, supplements, and lifestyle changes, all of which will increase their quality of life.

Track Level: Intermediate

Effectively Working with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Speaker: Howie Brounstein
Formulating with the Action Formula

Learn to craft a traditional Western ‘action formula’ where an initial list of potentially appropriate herbs is refined based on the client's constitution and energetics; the vitalist and clinical actions of the herbs being considered; and the compatibilities of the chosen herbs. This strategy includes balancing the prominence of different herbs, the use of corrigents, flavoring for better compliance, and directing a formula to a particular tissue type or organ system.

Track Level: Intermediate

Speaker: Lisa Ganora
Formulation for the Practicing Herbalist

One of the key components in herbal practice is formulation. This combines an understanding of a patient’s condition (symptoms, diagnosis, etc.) and a working knowledge of the plants used in treatment.
In this class we will cover strategies to formulate and use case studies as examples of this often complex process.

Speaker: 7Song, RH(AHG)
Functional Labratory Interpretation for Herbal Therapies

Review and interpretation of common standard (biomedical) and Functional Labs with emphasis on identifying patterns of functional and nutritional deficits.
Based on the interpretation, we will identify appropriate herbal classes for use and how to appropriately utilize individually or in conjunction with pharmacological therapy.
The primary focus will be on clinical interventions including evidence as well as potential issues. Herbs, formulas and nutrients will be reviewed.

Track Level: Advanced

Genetic Testing for MTHFR and Beyond - An Introduction and Discussion for Herbalists

As herbalists, we can understand health imbalances from various observational and objective perspectives. One new horizon in healthcare is looking at genetic variants in people. This class will introduce and prepare herbalists to join the conversation regarding genetic testing as this field rapidly expands in America.

Track Level: General

Speaker: Stephen Byers
GI Tract Protocol for Chronic Illness

Digestive system dysfunction is the core of many modern illnesses. Symptom pictures can be simple like abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, constipation, flatulence, bowel flora issues, or food sensitivities. They may be complex like inflammation, impaired immunity, colitis, "leaky gut," IBS, crohn's disease, or chronic fatigue syndrome.

In some circles, clients have compromised GI tracts from a "fast food" vegan or other extended restrictive diets without adequate nutrition. These clients often show symptoms years later due to malabsorption and nutritional deficiencies, even if they have changed to a more varied diet.

In chronic illnesses that are not directly related to digestion, bringing the GI tract back to health is often a primary pathway to a lasting recovery.

The GI tract protocol can normalize a variety of chronic problems and increase digestive prowess. I have used it successfully many times in my clinic. I will discuss the details of the protocol, richly illustrated with case histories and sprinkled with a helping a humor.

Topics include parasites, amoebas, candida, food allergies and intolerance, bitters, aromatics, supplemental enzymes and hydrochloric acid, demulcents, astringents, anti-inflammatories, probiotics and more. Student herbalists will gain an understanding of the many approaches in working with chronic digestive problems. Practicing clinical herbalists will learn a way to weave their different approaches together into a clear and easily explained plan tailored to the client.

Track Level: General

Speaker: Howie Brounstein
Herbal bitters: Their role in appetite regulation, blood glucose management, and obesity

Asking a client to eat less sugar and starch in today’s culture is like asking a smoker to quit tobacco in 1920s Paris. Herbal bitters can provide the needed support, and help address chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. These preparations helping us eat less, control carbohydrate intake, and balance blood sugar. Review the pharmacology of how this works, the emergent clinical research, and relevant case studies.

Track Level: Intermediate

Herbal Mistakes, Learning from Others' Errors

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

This class explores common clinical mistakes through the humorous stories of an experienced clinician. These stories will lead to a path of understanding on how to avoid repeating these “offenses” in your own clinical future. Join Bob Linde as he regales you with his own learning journey.

Track Level: Beginner/Student

Herbal Myth Busters

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

How can the herbalist identify inaccurate, but apparently authentic, information?  Numerous tall tales will be traced back to their dubious origins, and the actual virtues and of the herbs involved will be offered in place of the sexy, but unfounded, assertions that are so common in today's popular herbal literature. Besides an amusing and enlightening romp through the world of herbal mythos, we’ll learn skills for investigation, verification, or invalidation.

Track Level: General

Speaker: Lisa Ganora
Herbal pharmacies and the Cooperative economy

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

Having reliable access to safe herbal medicines is key for a successful herbal intervention. Often, however, it is too difficult to maintain a full herbal pharmacy that can serve any patient you may come across on your own. The Cooperative herbal pharmacy is one way to create a business that serves the herbal community of both practitioners and patients while relieving the burden of stocking and maintaining on a single practitioner. Alison will speak about the business model she has helped to develop at The Vital Compass, a cooperative herbal pharmacy in Portland, OR

Track Level: General

Herbs for Sexual Dysfunction

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

Medicine as a whole often overlooks the importance of addressing libido. This class will focus on herbs that improve libido, as well as facilitate closeness and intimacy. In addition to learning about the herbs as singles, we will discuss formulating, as well as them as well as ways to integrate them into edible treats.

Track Level: Intermediate

Herbs that Calm the Shen (Spirit)

*This class will be presented as 30-minute MINI-SESSION

Class will begin with a brief discussion on the Three Treasures (Jing, Qi, Shen). When our Shen (Spirit) is at peace we are happy, content and capable of achieving the Soul’s purpose for this Life. When our Shen is disturbed or unsettled, we may experience anxiety, insomnia, anger and other conditions that hinder our ability to grow into our highest potential. Our class will cover a wide array of both Chinese and Western herbs that nourish blood, anchor yang, calm shen and more.

Track Level: Intermediate

Herbs to Lift the Vital Spirit, Suppress Cancer and Reduce Recurrence and Metastasis

Clinicians working with cancer and other chronic conditions recognize that patient depression and anxiety are often undiagnosed and untreated, and lead to poor outcomes. (1-5) Aggressive, invasive cancer phenotypes, cancer recurrence and metastasis have all been linked to the activation of the adrenaline/Beta2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) via signaling from the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline. New research indicates the effectiveness of botanicals for modulating the effects of stress on cancer. Herbs that lift the vital spirit also help to modify key pathways of cancer-related inflammation, and enhance tumor infiltrating immune cells. Several nutritional compounds can work with the herbs to boost specific neurotransmitters and enhance immunity, creating cellular and spiritual reprogramming for healing.

Track Level: Advanced

Speaker: Donnie Yance
Hops (Humulus lupulus) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Tale of Discovery

In this presentation, the world of microbial-resistant skin infections is explored. You’ll learn the history of Hops (Humulus lupulus) against skin infections, the importance of the herb’s freshness as medicine, and the implications that different alcohol concentrations used to make the extract has on potency and shelf life. The impact of Hops on MRSA skin infections in the laboratory and clinical setting is examined. Four clinical case histories are presented.

Track Level: Intermediate

Keynote: The Endocannabinoid System in Health and Disease: What Every Herbalist Should Know

Cannabis has been an important tool in the herbalist’s pharmacopoeia for millennia, but it has only been in the past 25 years that science has provided a better understanding of its myriad benefits. This began with the discovery of cannabinoid receptors, followed by endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) and their regulatory metabolic and catabolic enzymes, the triad now known as the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS performs major regulatory homeostatic functions in the brain, skin, digestive tract, liver, cardiovascular system, genitourinary function and even bone. Various lifestyle factors including diet and aerobic activity affect the ECS, as do numerous herbal agent beyond cannabis: Echinacea, Helichrysum, Zingiber (ginger), Capsicum (chile pepper), Copaifera, Piper methysticum (kava), Tuber melanosporum (black truffle) and perhaps even Salvia divinorum and Rhodiola rosea.  We will explore these relationships.

Speaker: Ethan Russo, MD
Leaky Gut - Herbal, Nutritional, and Integrative Approaches

The class will discuss several nutritional strategies and herbal protocols to address the various forms of Leaky Gut disturbances. An introduction to methods of testing and lab work will be provided to help emphasize precision in treatment plans. Finally, we will cover supplements, lifestyle strategies, and ways to improve the outcome for your client with an integrative approach.

Track Level: Beginner/Student

Speaker: Stephen Byers
Localized Prostate Cancer

An argument will be made that localized prostate cancer is a disease that largely doesn’t need to be aggressively treated and should be seen in the context of metabolic syndrome. Recent major scientific developments calling for an end to screening for this condition due to conventional overtreatment and lack of efficacy of invasive therapies will be discussed. Natural alternatives to improving general health instead of “killing cancer” will be discussed including immunomodulation, dietary and lifestyle approaches, cardiovascular tonics, and insulin sensitizers and related herbs.

Track Level: Advanced

Male Aging and "Low T"

There is a rapidly rising vogue of treating “low testosterone” in middle-age and older men. The parallels of this phenomenon to menopause and the rise of hormone replacement therapy will be presented, including the potential for disastrous outcomes. Herbal and lifestyle alternatives to supporting healthy aging in men will be presented, including adaptogens such as Withania somnifera and Panax ginseng. The flock of various herbs that supposedly elevated testosterone levels will be discussed and debunked (Lepidium meyenii, Tribulus terrestris, Smilax spp, etc.). Their true uses in aging men will be highlighted.

Track Level: Intermediate

Management of Chronic Illness in Underserved Communities

In our practice, we have had a lot of success managing chronic illnesses such as Crohn’s, endometiosis, MS, and others with an adaptable protocol that includes changes to sleep, diet, and lifestyle, and uses herbs to support healing. These strategies have been very successful, but they require a certain level of affluence. We will discuss our protocols in detail and ways to adapt them for the underserved, with case studies.

Track Level: Intermediate

Speaker: Katja Swift
Managing Chronic Pain and Inflammation

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

Pain affects more Americans than diabetes, heart disease, and cancer combined and is the most common cause for long-term disability. Herbs, diet, and lifestyle therapies can manage and sometimes eliminate chronic pain with numerous side *benefits.* Learn different approaches for overall inflammation, muscle pain, nerve pain, joint pain, as well as autoimmune- and detoxification-related components so you can develop targeted yet multifaceted plans for the individual.

Track Level: General

Mayan Spiritual Healing

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

Mayan Healing is a complete therapuetic healing modality developed by and practiced by the Mayan people for thousands of years. It incorporates a complex understanding of health a disease and employs a great many herbal therapies. This talk discusses the concept of Mayan Spiritual healing which is a concept often left out of standard medical and alternative approaches to health and healing. We will introduce five different spiritual ailments and discuss their appropriate herbal treatments.

Track Level: General

Mental Illness: A multi-modality herbal protocol focused on neurotonics, entheogens, and the microbiome.

In the last decade, exciting research has shown how inflammatory nerve injury, heart rate variability, disruptions in gut flora, and entheogens can impact mood. By examining three case studies (depression and brain injury; substance abuse and addiction; and adult “attention deficit”) we will explore how to leverage these insights. Learn a clear methodology for evaluating the components of mental health and a flexible protocol to nourish and rebalance.

Track Level: Advanced

Methylation and glucuronidation: epigenetic regulation of DNA as an underlying process in the development of chronic disease

Epigenetics is the study of alterations in genetic expression due to environmental and lifestyle factors. Genes can become "locked down" or underexpressed because of dietary and other factors, and these alterations then are passed down to future generations. We will look at two processes, methylation and glucuronidation, and their effects upon DNA expression and associated diseases such as autism, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancers. Herbs such as Cistus libanotis, Curcuma longa, green tea catechins and grape components which positively effect epigenetic expression will be discussed.

Track Level: Advanced

Parkinson's and MS as case studies for the herbal treatment of neurological disease

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

Parkinson's Disease and MS are used as models for understanding neurological diseases which are increasing worldwide in response to demographics, pollution, the nutritional evisceration of our food and life stresses. We will look at causes, what happens to the brain and nerves, troubling symptoms and how we might address them. We will review diet, supplementation, herbs and will compose a model formula matching energetics and symptoms of a specific patient.

Track Level: Intermediate

Quality and Record Keeping Strategies for Small Companies

If you are familiar with the basic GMP requirements but would like to delve deeper into specific issues you are facing in your practice this is the course for you. In this lecture we will briefly review the key records most often cited as deficient in form 483 and Warning Letters. We will then delve into some of the most common issues found by small herbal producers with plenty of time for tacking your specific issues (so come with questions!).

Track Level: Advanced

Speaker: Erin Leary
The 21st Century Herbal Pharmacy: from Kitchen Medicine to cGMP Compliance

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

As complementary & alternative medicine grows in popularity, there is a parallel growing need for professional herbal compounding pharmacies. This lecture will cover the Herbal Pharmacist as a distinct specialty. What are the job demands regarding federal regulations? How can we best serve the needs of the practitioners whose prescriptions we fill? And how can we make the best medicine for our clients, especially those suffering from chronic disease?

Track Level: Intermediate

Speaker: Sheila Devitt
The Emotional and Mental Aspects of Lyme Disease

Any practitioner who has worked with Lyme knows that it is a multi-faceted condition that is highly individualized in its manifestations. In this class we will address emotional and mental patterns specific to chronic or Late Stage Disseminated Lyme, and how these interact with physical symptoms of disease. We will discuss assessing and identifying patterns (diagnostics), materia medica and protocols, and will present case histories to illustrate the points made.

Track Level: Intermediate

The heart and soul of Rose; remedy for chronic sorrow

Rose offers much in the way of clearing the physical and emotion blocks that stunt our health and keep us stuck in sorrow. This class will focus on heart health and all that this overlooked herb has to offer. We will cover current research, a variety of recipes, smell the essential oil and review its multilayered history. Hands-on experience of rose in many forms will inspire and inform.

Track Level: General

The History of Domestic Medicine and its Modern Relevance

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

Domestic medicine is a term, which refers to healing work and self-care that took place in the home. Self-care and physick work dominated healing practices until the late 19th century. There is a rich history of manuscripts, which accompanied this work. This class will explore this history, provide scientific support of folk remedies from the manuscripts and talk about my personal experiences utilizing such preparations as Aqua Mirabilis and Surfeit Water in clinical work.

Track Level: General

Speaker: Stephany Hoffelt
The Influence of Cannabis on the Psyche

Cannabis is now approved for recreational or medical use in 24 states and has recently been approved federally for use in states allowing legal access to Cannabis products. Interestingly reports in both the biomedical literature and from patients suggest that there are beneficial effects of Cannabis on various psychological conditions. Conversely, there are reports of detrimental influences of Cannabis on mental health including addiction. This lecture will discuss both sides and shine a light on a topic that will increasingly be discussed in healthcare provider's forums and the press.

Presentation Outline:

  • THC: Effects on brain chemistry and behavior. 
  • CBD: Effect on brain chemistry and behavior.
  • Terpenes: Effect on brain chemistry and behavior.
  • Clinical utility of behavioral effects of Cannabis.
  • Addiction potential of Cannabis and THC.
  • Summary of Effects: Pro and Con

Learning Outcomes:

  • The participant will be able to articulate the effects of THC on brain chemistry and psychological effects
  • The participant will be able to articulate the effects of cannabidiol on brain chemistry and psychological effects
  • The participant will be able to articulate the effects of the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes on psychological parameters.
  • The participant will be able to articulate the clinical utility of Cannabis.
  • The participant will be able to articulate the effects of THC on addiction potential.
  • The participant will be able to summarize the benefits and detriments of Cannabis used therapeutically and recreationally.

Track Level: Intermediate

Speaker: Kevin Spelman
The Macrobiome: It’s not just the Microbiome that Matters!

The Microbiome is receiving much-deserved attention in medical research and clinical applications. Lagging behind in consciousness is what the presenter refers to as the Macrobiome. Together we will review the scientific literature on the links between our health as individuals and the integrity and biodiversity of the greater ecosystems in which we live, and end by discussing practical ways herbalists can incorporate this information into protocols for their clients.

Track Level: General

The Orphan Nuclear Receptors: Unrecognized Targets of Botanical Medicines?

The orphan nuclear receptors, so named because endogenous ligands are not identified, are known for their promiscuity and can bind many different phytochemical compounds. As such, it may be that many of the remarkably broad effects of botanical medicine may involve these upstream targets influencing a plethora of downstream activity. This plays a significant role in chronic disease. In this lecture we will discuss the orphan nuclear receptors, their promiscuity and consider their well-established, but diverse exogenous phytochemical ligands and the effect on chronic disease.

Track Level: Advanced

Speaker: Kevin Spelman
The Shikimate pathway, gut flora, and disease : why GMOs cause adverse health consequences for humans.

GMOs are touted as being safe for human consumption because our cells do not use the biochemical pathway that glyphosate affects. However, our trillions of gut flora utilize this pathway, and are seriously deregulated by the consumption of GMO foods. Several hundred research studies support the adverse consequences of GMOs on human health, and their consumption is associated with more than thirty diseases. Come and learn the facts.

Track Level: Intermediate

Tonic Herbs for Chronic Stress

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

This class will teach the use of tonic herbs as practiced in TCM. You will learn about representative herbs for each category- Yin Yang-Qi and blood. We will learn how that relates to the effects of chronic stress and aging and how to prevent that. The concept of "adaptogen" vs tonic will be discussed as well as dosing, dispensing and counter-indications.

TransNatural for Professionals

TransNatural, is a class to support the trans body and spirit with herbs and nutrition, as well as diversity training for using inclusive, non-judgemental, respectful language and intake forms as healthcare providers for trans-bodied people.

The class will explore hormone maintenance with natural remedies, what can be achieved using herbs instead of pharmaceuticals for gender modification, and/or using herbs to mitigate side effects of synthetic hormones.

Track Level: General

Treating Lupus Erythematosus with Herbal Medicine

The treatment of Lupus Eythematosis with herbs brings practitioners into a path of knowledge about the treatment of an array of autoimmune disorders. This lecture explores the treatment methods of a senior practitioner with more than 500 cases of SLE. Nutritional and herbal interventions are considered. Models of disease progression are presented and research on the use of herbal medicine for the treatment of SLE is also discussed.

Track Level: Intermediate

Treating the Three Types of Heart Failure

In this lecture we will be talking about the three kinds of heart failure, the differences between them, the symptoms of each, what other organ systems are involved, the lab work you may see, and what herbs, supplements and flower essences can be used to treat all of them.

Track Level: Intermediate

Ukrainian Folk Herbalism

*This class will be presented as a 30-minute MINI-SESSION

Many Ukrainian villages are extremely isolated and professional medical care is difficult to obtain. People learn how to heal using plants, beeswax, water, fire, words, and rituals. Unfortunately, much of this knowledge has been lost due to healers not passing on the information with others, and because of fear of being ridiculed and misunderstood. In this workshop Halyna will speak of legends about plants that are common in North America and Ukraine and how they are used in Ukraine.

Track Level: General

Speaker: Halyna Shepko